The Philippines

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Republic of the Philippines

Republic of the Philippines
 

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  • Country Profile
    country profile
    Location Southeast Asia
    Capital Manila
    Population 94.01 million (2010 projection)
    Area 300,000㎢ (1.5 times the size of the Korean peninsula)
    Race composition Mixed with various races, mostly Malay
    Religion Catholic (83%), Protestant (5.4%), Muslim (4.6%)
    Form of government Republic
    Language Tagalog, English
    Currency Peso
    Independence Day
    (National holiday)
    Jun. 12, 1898
    Date of diplomatic relationship established March. 3, 1949
    Military attache establishment Aug. 1957 in the Philippines, Jul. 1958 in Korea
    • New Zealand
    • New Zealand
    • New Zealand
  • Key Roles

    Key Roles during the War

    Filipino General Carlos Romulo, who was the president of the UN General Assembly from 1949 to 1950, staunchly advocated the international defense of South Korea. “The application of military sanctions in Korea is in itself an act of the greatest significance,” he said before the Assembly on 25 September 1950, reflecting on the decision of the Security Council to take military action in the peninsula and on the need to strengthen collective action against acts of aggression.

    On 07 September 1950, the Philippine government responded with the approval by the Philippine Congress of Republic Act 573, the Philippine Military Aid to the UN Act, making possible the sending of a Filipino expeditionary force to South Korea to help repel the communist aggression. On September 19, 1950, the first of five Battalion Combat Teams from the Philippine Army landed in Busan. The Philippine Expeditionary Force to Korea, or PEFTOK, became the eighth UNC ground combat unit to enter the Korean War. Among those who took part in the war was former Philippine President Fidel V. Ramos, as well as two former Philippine ambassadors to South Korea.

    The Philippine contingent, despite having to adapt to the Korean winter, fought bravely and took part in decisive battles such as in Yultong and Hill Eerie. A total of 7,420 troops were sent. The five battalion combat teams acquitted themselves creditably in combat. Not one PEFTOK battalion was overrun or made incapable of combat as a result of enemy action despite many hard-fought battles. PEFTOK fought successfully against its main enemy in scores of actions in hills, cities and towns along the 38th parallel.

    The Philippines was unique among UN combatants in that it was the only one with an active communist insurgency and the only one whose soldiers had immediate combat experience. A significant number of PEFTOK soldiers had also fought against the Japanese during the Second World War. This combat experience was invaluable in keeping casualties low, and in PEFTOK accomplishing the missions assigned to it.

    Participation History

    Participation History
    Unit Participation Period
    The 10th Battalion Combat Team (motorized) Sept. 1950 to Sept. 1951
    The 20th Battalion Combat Team Apr. 1951 (first contingent) to June 1952
    The 19th Battalion Combat Team Apr. 1952 to Apr. 1953
    The 14th Battalion Combat Team Mar. 1953 to Mar. 1954
    The 2th Battalion Combat Team Apr. 1954 to May. 1955

    Casualty Statistics

    Casualty Statistics
    Total KIA WIA MIA and POW
    490

    116

    313 61
  • Key Battles

    Gaesung-Pyongyang Main Supply Road Guarding Operation (1950. 11. 1~27)

    Ceremony for the unit awarded with the U.S. Presidential Medal
    10th Battalion soldiers
    concentrating on bayonet training

    The Filipino Battalion Special Force arrived in Busan in Sep. 1950 and began guarding operation behind the battle zone near Milyang - Sacheon - Waegwan. It then moved to Pyongyang on Nov. 1 and performed guarding operation on the U.N. Forces' logistics line ranging from Pyongyang to Gaesung. During this Gaesung - Pyongyang - main supply road guarding operation, the Filipino Battalion Special Force fought against the North Korean Army near Miwu Mt. (5km south of Sinkye) on Nov. 6 and accomplished many achievements. It also attacked the North Korean guerrilla who cut off the supply road between Sinmak and Sinkye on Nov. 12 and defeated the enemy near Eunjeom-ri.

    Battle of Yuldong (5km North of Yeoncheon; 1951. 4. 22~23)

    Ceremony for the unit awarded with the U.S. Presidential Medal
    Filipino Force out for a
    counterattack at the Battle of Yuldong,
    northwest of Yeoncheon

    This was the battle in which the Filipino 10th Battalion Special Force after being attached to the U.S. 3rd Division fought against the Chinese Communist 34th Division at Yuldong, north of Yeoncheon. On the night of Apr. 22 during the Chinese Communist Spring Offensive, the Chinese Communist Army infiltrated the Battalion Headquarters after passing through the adjacent unit on the right flank of the Battalion and destroying a part of the Company position in the right side of the Battalion and the Company position in the middle of the Battalion. But it defended its position until the end and assisted the unit on the right side of the Battalion to retreat successfully. The 10th Battalion Special Force was withdrawn to stay behind the battle zone following the withdrawal order from the U.N. Forces Headquarters.

    Arsenal and Iri Hill Skirmish (20km North of Yeoncheon; 1952. 5. 18~6. 21)

    This was the battle in which the Filipino 19th Battalion Special Force after being attached to the U.S. 45th Division fought against the Chinese Communist 117th Division at the Arsenal and Iri hill in the south of the T-bone hill while performing the main defense line guarding duty. Following the powerful initial firing, the Chinese Communist Army launched an intense attack on these two hills in a battalion or regiment unit using 2 regiment size troops in this battle, but the Filipino Battalion defeated the Chinese Communist attack with fire power support by the Division and defended two hills.

    Battle of Baekseok Mt. - Christmas Hill (1953. 7. 15~18)

    This was the battle in which the Filipino 14th Battalion Special Force from Baekseok Mt. supported the U.S. 34th Division's Christmas Hill Battle and fought against the Chinese Communist Army after occupying an outpost near the hill. When the 180th Regiment of the U.S. 45th Division lost the Christmas outpost on Jul. 15 due to '7.13 Offensive' launched several days before the cease-fire agreement, it immediately launched a counterattack with a reserve company. Here, the Filipino Battalion recaptured the Christmas Hill by supporting this Company's counterattack and made a preparation for a Chinese Communist counterattack. While the Battalion was defending the outpost it built at the point 1.3km from the hill's right side, it was attacked by the Chinese Communist Army on the night of Jul. 18. It defeated them and continued to defend this battle line until the cease-fire agreement was signed. As a result of this battle, the Christmas Hill (south near Hill 1090) was included in the south side of the military demarcation line.

    After the cease-fire agreement, the Filipino Battalion left in May 1955.