- Country Profile
country profile Location Northern region of the North American continent Capital Ottawa Population 33,390,141 (June 2007) Area 9,984,670㎢(45 times the size of the Korean peninsula) Race composition British (28%), French (23%), Mixed (26%) Religion Catholic (42.6%), Protestant (23.3%) Form of government Constitutional monarchy system Language English, French Currency Canadian Dollar Independence Day (National holiday) Jul. 1, 1867 (from Great Britain) Date of diplomatic relationship established Jan. 14, 1963 Military attache establishment 1977 in Canada, Jan. 1978 in Korea
- Key Roles
A neighboring country of the US and a member nation of the NATO, Canada apprehended that behind the North’s invasion of South Korea, there was the Soviet’s desire of expansion. For this reason, Canada announced that the North Korea’s invasion should be repelled with combined efforts of the UN nations. Five days after the war broke out, the House of the Commons of Canadian government came to an unanimous agreement on helping Korea, saying that “we would give full support to any of the Canadian government’s measures taken to demonstrate the efficiency of the collective security.”
On this day, Prime Minister Luis Roland also said that “we should take collective security actions under the UN authority.”
Canada sent a brigade-level military forces as Turkey did. In mid- February 1951, the 2nd Battalion(PPCLI) was the first unit committed to Korea, and upon arrival in Korea the battalion was engaged in war as part of the 27th Commonwealth Brigade. The 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade sailed for Korea in April 1951 and came into the line towards the end of May. Upon arrival in Korea, the 25th Brigade was deployed as a unit of the newly established 1st Division of British Commonwealth.
In matters of military doctrine, the Canadian armed forces had much in common with the British armed forces, and unlike the Turkish soldiers the Canadian soldiers didn’t have any communication problems at the Korean front. The 2nd Battalion of the Canadian forces played a big role in blocking the Chinese attack at the battle of Kapyong, demonstrating its excellent combat capabilities and its strong will to fight.
Participation History Unit Participation Period Note The 25th Brigade May 1951 to Dec. 1954 The Princes Patrician Light Infantry The 2nd Battalion Dec. 1950 to Nov. 1951 The 1st Battalion Oct. 1951 to Nov. 1952 The 3rd Battalion Oct. 1952 to Oct. 1953 The Royal Canadian Regiment The 2nd Battalion May 1951 to Apr. 1952 The 1st Battalion Apr. 1952 to Mar. 1953 The 3rd Battalion Mar. 1953 to Mar. 1954 The 22nd Royal Regiment The 2nd Battalion May 1951 to Apr. 1952 The 1st Battalion Apr. 1952 to Apr. 1953 The 3rd Battalion Apr. 1953 to Apr. 1954
Casualty Statistics Total KIA WIA MIA POW 1,557 312 1,212 1 32
- Key Battles
Battle of Gapyung (1951. 4. 23~25)
The war monument
commemorating Gapyung Battle
This was the defensive battle in which the PPCLI 2nd Battalion fought against an enemy’s unit under the command of the Chinese Communist 20th Army Corps at the southern tip of Hill 667, located 7km north of Gapyung. This Battalion, as a member of the British 27th Brigade, was dispatched and assisted the South Korean 6th Division retreating from the battle area Sachang-ri. It also stopped the Chinese Communist Army attempting to block the road between Seoul and Chuncheon after chasing them to Gapyung. This Battalion faced an intensive attack from the Chinese Communist Army but it defended its position well and made a big contribution in stopping the Chinese Communist Spring Offensive at the north of Gapyung.
Battle of Jail-ri (2km North of Wuncheon ; 1951. 5. 30)
This was the battle in which the Canadian 25th Brigade fought against the Chinese Communist Army for the first time since participating in the Korean War. Participating in the Counteroffensive Operation launched by the U.N. Armed Forces after stopping the Chinese Communist 2nd Spring Offensive, this Brigade moved to Wuncheon and attacked Jail-ri located in the north and Gakgeolbong (Hill 467) located in the east. In this battle, this Brigade captured a portion of Jail-ri and Gakgeolbong, but it retreated to the Wuncheon area after its attack failed due to the Chinese Communist stiff resistance and counterattack. After this battle, it became a reserve unit and moved to the Pocheon area.
Battle of Gowang Mt. (1952. 10. 23)
The new Brigade
introduced to the PPCLI 1st
This was the battle in which the Canadian 2nd Brigade fought against the Chinese Communist Army while defending the Gowang Mt. area, north of the Imjin River. After the surprise attack by the Chinese Communist, the Mumyoung hill, west of Gowang Mt., was captured by the enemy at one time, but it regained control of the hill with a counterattack and restored the main defense line. In this battle, the Chinese Communist Army secretly built cover trenches right below the hill before launching an attack to protect themselves from artillery attacks. The attack unit hiding inside trenches launched a surprise attack following an attack and captured the Mumyoung hill.
After the cease-fire agreement, the Canada Air Force was withdrawn in Jul. 1953, Naval Force in Sep. 1955 and Ground Troops in Jun. 1957.